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Expressive, Efficient, and Revocable Data Access Control for Multi-Authority Cloud Storage

Data access control is an effective way to ensure the data security in the cloud. Due to data outsourcing and untrusted cloud servers, the data access control becomes a challenging issue in cloud storage systems. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute based Encryption (CP-ABE) is regarded as one of the most suitable technologies for data access control in cloud storage, because it gives data owners more direct control on access policies. However, it is difficult to directly apply existing CP-ABE schemes to data access control for cloud storage systems because of the attribute revocation problem.

In this paper, we design an expressive, efficient and revocable data access control scheme for multi-authority cloud storage systems, where there are multiple authorities co-exist and each authority is able to issue attributes independently. Specifically, we propose a revocable multi-authority CP-ABE scheme, and apply it as the underlying techniques to design the data access control scheme. Our attribute revocation method can efficiently achieve both forward security and backward security. Check this The analysis and simulation results show that our proposed data access control scheme is secure in the random oracle model and is more efficient than previous works.


This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces a great challenge to data access control. Because the cloud server cannot be fully trusted by data owners, they can no longer rely on servers to do access control. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) is regarded as one of the most suitable technologies for data access control in cloud storage systems, because it gives the data owner more direct control on access policies. In CP-ABE scheme, there is an authority that is responsible for attribute management and key distribution.


  • Chase’s multi-authority CP-ABE protocol allows the central authority to decrypt allthe ciphertexts, since it holds the master key of the system.
  • Chase’s protocol does not support sattribute revocation.


In this paper, we first propose a revocable multiauthority CP-ABE scheme, where an efficient and secure revocation method is proposed to solve the attribute revocation problem in the system. Our attribute revocation method is efficient in the sense that it incurs less communication cost and computation cost, and is secure in the sense that it can achieve both backward security (The revoked user cannot decrypt any new ciphertext that requires the revoked attribute to decrypt)and forward security (The newly joined user can also decrypt the previously published ciphertexts1, if it has sufficient. attributes).

Our scheme does not require the server to be fully trusted, because the key update is enforced by each attribute authority not the server. Latest Android & PHP Project Solutions with the good support Even if the server is not semitrusted in some scenarios, our scheme can still guarantee the backward security. Then, we apply our proposed revocable multi-authority CP-ABE scheme as the underlying techniques to construct the expressive and secure data access control scheme for multi-authority cloud storage systems.


  • We modify the framework of the scheme and make it more practical to cloud storage systems, in which data owners are not involved in the key generation.
  • We greatly improve the efficiency of the attribute revocation method.
  • We also highly improve the expressiveness of our access control scheme, where we remove the limitation that each attribute can only appear at most once in a ciphertext.



v    Processor                                 –    Pentium –IV

  • Speed                                      –    1.1 GHz
    • RAM                                       –    256 MB (min)
    • Hard Disk                               –   20 GB
    • Floppy Drive                           –    1.44 MB
    • Key Board                              –    Standard Windows Keyboard
    • Mouse                                     –    Two or Three Button Mouse
    • Monitor                                   –    SVGA


  • Operating System                   :           Windows XP
  • Front End                                :           Microsoft Visual Studio 2010
  • Back End                                :           MS-SQL Server
  • Document                               :           MS-Office 2007



  • The DFD is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system
  • The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important modeling tools. It is used to model the system components. These components are the system process, the data used by the process, an external entity that interacts with the system and the information flows in the system.
  • DFD shows how the information moves through the system and how it is modified by a series of transformations. It is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and the transformations that are applied as data moves from input to output.
  • DFD is also known as bubble chart. A DFD may be used to represent a system at any level of abstraction. DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail.


There are several common modeling rules when creating DFDs:

  1. All processes must have at least one data flow in and one data flow out.
  2. All processes should modify the incoming data, producing new forms of outgoing data.
  3. Each data store must be involved with at least one data flow.
  4. Each external entity must be involved with at least one data flow.
  5. A data flow must be attached to at least one process.



  • ADMIN:

In this module is used to help the server to view details and upload files with the security. Admin upload the data’s to database. Also view the subscriber details and user details. Admin find the redistribute details. Also who send the data and receive the data’s. Data owner store large amount of data to clouds and access data using secure key provided admin after encrypting data’s. Encrypt the data using SECY. User store data after auditor, view and verifying data and also changed data. User again views data at that time admin provided the message to user only changes data.


In this module subscriber choose document and download the data’s from service providers. Subscribers pay the amount to service provider. Service provider provides that data key to subscriber. So subscribers download the data using data key. A cloud computing service provider serves users’ service requests by using a server system, which is constructed and maintained by an infrastructure vendor and rented by the service provider.

  • USER:

In this module, Users are having authentication and security to access the detail which is presented in the ontology system. Before accessing or searching the details user should have the account in that otherwise they should register first user can register their details like user name, password, email, mobile no, and then. We develop this module, where the cloud storage can be made secure.


In multi-authority cloud storage systems, we make the following assumptions:

. The CA is fully trusted in the system. It will not collude with any user, but it should be prevented from decrypting any ciphertexts by itself.

. Each AA is trusted but can be corrupted by the adversary.

. The server is curious but honest. It is curious about the content of the encrypted data or the received message, but will execute correctly the task assigned by each attribute authority.

. Each user is dishonest and may collude to obtain unauthorized access to data.

We now describe the security model for our revocable multi-authority CP-ABE systems by the following game between a challenger and an adversary. Similar to the identity-based encryption schemes, the security model allows the adversary to query for any secret keys and update keys that cannot be used to decrypt the challenge ciphertext. We assume that the adversaries can corrupt authorities only statically similar to key queries are made adaptively. Let SA denote the set of all the attribute authorities.


We propose a new revocable multi-authority CP-ABE protocol based on the single-authority CP-ABE proposed to multiauthority scenario and make it revocable. We apply the techniques in Chase’s multi-authority CP-ABE protocol to tie together the secret keys generated by different authorities for the same user and prevent the collusion attack. Specifically, we separate the functionality of the authority into a global certificate authority (CA) and multiple attribute authorities (AAs).

The CA sets up the system and accepts the registration of users and AAs in the system.7 It assigns a global user identity uid to each user and a global authority identity aid to each attribute authority in the system. Because the uid is globally unique in the system, secret keys issued by different AAs for the same uid can be tied together for decryption. Also, because each AA is associated with an aid, every attribute is distinguishable even though some AAs may issue the same attribute.

Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising technique that is designed for access control of encrypted data. There are two types of CP-ABE systems: single authority CP-ABE where all attributes are managed by a single authority, and multi-authority CP-ABE, where attributes are from different domains and managed by different authorities. Multi-authority CP-ABE is more appropriate for the access control of cloud storage systems, as users may hold attributes issued by multiple authorities and the data owners may share the data using access policy defined over attributes from different authorities. Visit here However, due to the attribute revocation problem, these multi-authority CP-ABE schemes cannot be directly applied to data access control for such multi-authority cloud storage systems.



The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company.  For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential.

Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are      



This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased.


This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.  


The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of the system.


Testing is a process of checking whether the developed system is working according to the original objectives and requirements. It is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. Testing is vital to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, the global will be successfully achieved. In adequate testing if not testing leads to errors that may not appear even many months. This creates two problems, the time lag between the cause and the appearance of the problem and the effect of the system errors on the files and records within the system. A small system error can conceivably explode into a much larger Problem. Effective testing early in the purpose translates directly into long term cost savings from a reduced number of errors. Another reason for system testing is its utility, as a user-oriented vehicle before implementation. The best programs are worthless if it produces the correct outputs.


A program represents the logical elements of a system. For a program to run satisfactorily, it must compile and test data correctly and tie in properly with other programs. Achieving an error free program is the responsibility of the programmer. Program  testing  checks  for  two  types  of  errors:  syntax  and  logical. Syntax error is a program statement that violates one or more rules of the language in which it is written. An improperly defined field dimension or omitted keywords are common syntax errors. These errors are shown through error message generated by the computer. For Logic errors the programmer must examine the output carefully.


Description Expected result
Test for application window properties. All the properties of the windows are to be properly aligned and displayed.
Test for mouse operations. All the mouse operations like click, drag, etc. must perform the necessary operations without any exceptions.


Functional testing of an application is used to prove the application delivers correct results, using enough inputs to give an adequate level of confidence that will work correctly for all sets of inputs. The functional testing will need to prove that the application works for each client type and that personalization function work correctly.When a program is tested, the actual output is compared with the expected output. When there is a discrepancy the sequence of instructions must be traced to determine the problem.  The process is facilitated by breaking the program into self-contained portions, each of which can be checked at certain key points. The idea is to compare program values against desk-calculated values to isolate the problems.


Description Expected result
Test for all modules. All peers should communicate in the group.
Test for various peer in a distributed network framework as it display all users available in the group. The result after execution should give the accurate result.


 The Non Functional software testing encompasses a rich spectrum of testing strategies, describing the expected results for every test case. It uses symbolic analysis techniques. This testing used to check that an application will work in the operational environment. Non-functional testing includes:

  • Load testing
  • Performance testing
  • Usability testing
  • Reliability testing
  • Security testing


An important tool for implementing system tests is a Load generator. A Load generator is essential for testing quality requirements such as performance and stress. A load can be a real load, that is, the system can be put under test to real usage by having actual telephone users connected to it. They will generate test input data for system test.

Load Testing

Description Expected result
It is necessary to ascertain that the application behaves correctly under loads when ‘Server busy’ response is received. Should designate another active node as a Server.


Performance tests are utilized in order to determine the widely defined performance of the software system such as execution time associated with various parts of the code, response time and device utilization. The intent of this testing is to identify weak points of the software system and quantify its shortcomings.


Description Expected result
This is required to assure that an application perforce adequately, having the capability to handle many peers, delivering its results in expected time and using an acceptable level of resource and it is an aspect of operational management.   Should handle large input values, and produce accurate result in a  expected time.  


The software reliability is the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time and it is being ensured in this testing. Reliability can be expressed as the ability of the software to reveal defects under testing conditions, according to the specified requirements. It the portability that a software system will operate without failure under given conditions for a given time interval and it focuses on the behavior of the software element. It forms a part of the software quality control team.


Description Expected result
This is to check that the server is rugged and reliable and can handle the failure of any of the components involved in provide the application. In case of failure of  the server an alternate server should take over the job.


Security testing evaluates system characteristics that relate to the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the system data and services. Users/Clients should be encouraged to make sure their security needs are very clearly known at requirements time, so that the security issues can be addressed by the designers and testers.


  Description Expected result
Checking that the user identification is authenticated. In case failure it should not be connected in the framework.
Check whether group keys in a tree are shared by all peers. The peers should know group key in the same group.


White  box  testing,  sometimes called  glass-box  testing is  a test  case  design method  that  uses  the  control  structure  of the procedural  design  to  derive  test  cases. Using  white  box  testing  method,  the software  engineer  can  derive  test  cases. The White box testing focuses on the inner structure of the software structure to be tested.


Description Expected result
Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. All the logical decisions must be valid.
Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. All the loops must be finite.
Exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity. All the data structures must be valid.


Black box testing, also called behavioral testing, focuses on the functional requirements of the software.  That  is,  black  testing  enables  the software engineer  to  derive  sets  of  input  conditions  that  will  fully  exercise  all  functional requirements  for  a  program.  Black box testing is not alternative to white box techniques.  Rather  it  is  a  complementary  approach  that  is  likely  to  uncover  a different  class  of  errors  than  white box  methods. Black box testing attempts to find errors which focuses on inputs, outputs, and principle function of a software module. The starting point of the black box testing is either a specification or code. The contents of the box are hidden and the stimulated software should produce the desired results.


Description Expected result
To check for incorrect or missing functions. All the functions must be valid.
To check for interface errors. The entire interface must function normally.
To check for errors in a data structures or external data base access. The database updation and retrieval must be done.
To check for initialization and termination errors. All the functions and data structures must be initialized properly and terminated normally.

All the above system testing strategies are carried out in as the development, documentation and institutionalization of the proposed goals and related policies is essential.



Microsoft .NET is a set of Microsoft software technologies for rapidly building and integrating XML Web services, Microsoft Windows-based applications, and Web solutions. The .NET Framework is a language-neutral platform for writing programs that can easily and securely interoperate. There’s no language barrier with .NET: there are numerous languages available to the developer including Managed C++, C#, Visual Basic and Java Script.

The .NET framework provides the foundation for components to interact seamlessly, whether locally or remotely on different platforms. It standardizes common data types and communications protocols so that components created in different languages can easily interoperate.

“.NET” is also the collective name given to various software components built upon the .NET platform. These will be both products (Visual Studio.NET and Windows.NET Server, for instance) and services (like Passport, .NET My Services, and so on).


The .NET Framework has two main parts:

1. The Common Language Runtime (CLR).

2. A hierarchical set of class libraries.

The CLR is described as the “execution engine” of .NET. It provides the environment within which programs run. The most important features are

  • Conversion from a low-level assembler-style language, called Intermediate Language (IL), into code native to the platform being executed on.
  • Memory management, notably including garbage collection.
  • Checking and enforcing security restrictions on the running code.
  • Loading and executing programs, with version control and other such features.
  • The following features of the .NET framework are also worth description:

Managed Code

The code that targets .NET, and which contains certain extra Information – “metadata” – to describe itself. Whilst both managed and unmanaged code can run in the runtime, only managed code contains the information that allows the CLR to guarantee, for instance, safe execution and interoperability.

Managed Data

With Managed Code comes Managed Data. CLR provides memory allocation and Deal location facilities, and garbage collection. Some .NET languages use Managed Data by default, such as C#, Visual Basic.NET and JScript.NET, whereas others, namely C++, do not. Targeting CLR can, depending on the language you’re using, impose certain constraints on the features available. As with managed and unmanaged code, one can have both managed and unmanaged data in .NET applications – data that doesn’t get garbage collected but instead is looked after by unmanaged code.

Common Type System

The CLR uses something called the Common Type System (CTS) to strictly enforce type-safety. This ensures that all classes are compatible with each other, by describing types in a common way. CTS define how types work within the runtime, which enables types in one language to interoperate with types in another language, including cross-language exception handling. As well as ensuring that types are only used in appropriate ways, the runtime also ensures that code doesn’t attempt to access memory that hasn’t been allocated to it.

Common Language Specification

The CLR provides built-in support for language interoperability. To ensure that you can develop managed code that can be fully used by developers using any programming language, a set of language features and rules for using them called the Common Language Specification (CLS) has been defined. Components that follow these rules and expose only CLS features are considered CLS-compliant.


.NET provides a single-rooted hierarchy of classes, containing over 7000 types. The root of the namespace is called System; this contains basic types like Byte, Double, Boolean, and String, as well as Object. All objects derive from System. Object. As well as objects, there are value types. Value types can be allocated on the stack, which can provide useful flexibility. There are also efficient means of converting value types to object types if and when necessary.

The set of classes is pretty comprehensive, providing collections, file, screen, and network I/O, threading, and so on, as well as XML and database connectivity.

The class library is subdivided into a number of sets (or namespaces), each providing distinct areas of functionality, with dependencies between the namespaces kept to a minimum.


The multi-language capability of the .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET enables developers to use their existing programming skills to build all types of applications and XML Web services. The .NET framework supports new versions of Microsoft’s old favorites Visual Basic and C++ (as VB.NET and Managed C++), but there are also a number of new additions to the family.

Visual Basic .NET has been updated to include many new and improved language features that make it a powerful object-oriented programming language. These features include inheritance, interfaces, and overloading, among others. Visual Basic also now supports structured exception handling, custom attributes and also supports multi-threading.

Visual Basic .NET is also CLS compliant, which means that any CLS-compliant language can use the classes, objects, and components you create in Visual Basic .NET.

Managed Extensions for C++ and attributed programming are just some of the enhancements made to the C++ language. Managed Extensions simplify the task of migrating existing C++ applications to the new .NET Framework.

C# is Microsoft’s new language. It’s a C-style language that is essentially “C++ for Rapid Application Development”. Unlike other languages, its specification is just the grammar of the language. Get more projects ideas from the industry experts It has no standard library of its own, and instead has been designed with the intention of using the .NET libraries as its own.

Microsoft Visual J# .NET provides the easiest transition for Java-language developers into the world of XML Web Services and dramatically improves the interoperability of Java-language programs with existing software written in a variety of other programming languages.

Active State has created Visual Perl and Visual Python, which enable .NET-aware applications to be built in either Perl or Python. Both products can be integrated into the Visual Studio .NET environment. Visual Perl includes support for Active State’s Perl Dev Kit.

Other languages for which .NET compilers are available include

  • Eiffel          
            ASP.NET  XML WEB SERVICES    Windows Forms
                         Base Class Libraries
                   Common Language Runtime
                           Operating System

Fig1 .Net Framework

C#.NET is also compliant with CLS (Common Language Specification) and supports structured exception handling. CLS is set of rules and constructs that are supported by the CLR (Common Language Runtime). CLR is the runtime environment provided by the .NET Framework; it manages the execution of the code and also makes the development process easier by providing services.

C#.NET is a CLS-compliant language. Any objects, classes, or components that created in C#.NET can be used in any other CLS-compliant language. In addition, we can use objects, classes, and components created in other CLS-compliant languages in C#.NET .The use of CLS ensures complete interoperability among applications, regardless of the languages used to create the application.


Constructors are used to initialize objects, whereas destructors are used to destroy them. In other words, destructors are used to release the resources allocated to the object. In C#.NET the sub finalize procedure is available. The sub finalize procedure is used to complete the tasks that must be performed when an object is destroyed. The sub finalize procedure is called automatically when an object is destroyed. In addition, the sub finalize procedure can be called only from the class it belongs to or from derived classes.


Garbage Collection is another new feature in C#.NET. The .NET Framework monitors allocated resources, such as objects and variables. In addition, the .NET Framework automatically releases memory for reuse by destroying objects that are no longer in use.

In C#.NET, the garbage collector checks for the objects that are not currently in use by applications. When the garbage collector comes across an object that is marked for garbage collection, it releases the memory occupied by the object.


Overloading is another feature in C#. Overloading enables us to define multiple procedures with the same name, where each procedure has a different set of arguments. Besides using overloading for procedures, we can use it for constructors and properties in a class.


C#.NET also supports multithreading. An application that supports multithreading can handle multiple tasks simultaneously, we can use multithreading to decrease the time taken by an application to respond to user interaction.


C#.NET supports structured handling, which enables us to detect and remove errors at runtime. In C#.NET, we need to use Try…Catch…Finally statements to create exception handlers. Using Try…Catch…Finally statements, we can create robust and effective exception handlers to improve the performance of our application.


The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet.


1. To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object codes is stored and executed locally on Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.

2. To provide a code-execution environment to minimizes software deployment and guarantees safe execution of code.

3. Eliminates the performance problems.         

There are different types of application, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications. 


The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Meta Data Services. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. The term repository is used only in reference to the repository engine within Meta Data Services

SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects,

They are,







A database is a collection of data about a specific topic.


We can work with a table in two types,

1. Design View

2. Datasheet View

Design View

 To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the table design view. We can specify what kind of data will be hold.

Datasheet View

To add, edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet view mode.


A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the dynaset. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it, such as deleting or updating. Continue Reading


In this paper, we proposed a revocable multi-authority CPABE scheme that can support efficient attribute revocation. Then, we constructed an effective data access control scheme for multi-authority cloud storage systems. We also proved that our scheme was provable secure in the random oracle model. The revocable multi-authority CPABE is a promising technique, which can be applied in any remote storage systems and online social networks etc.

Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising technique that is designed for access control of encrypted data. There are two types of CP-ABE systems: single authority CP-ABE where all attributes are managed by a single authority, and multi-authority CP-ABE, where attributes are from different domains and managed by different authorities. Multi-authority CP-ABE is more appropriate for the access control of cloud storage systems.

We assign a version number for each attribute. When an attribute revocation happens, only those components associated with the revoked attribute in secret keys and ciphertexts need to be updated. When an attribute of a user is revoked from its corresponding AA, the AA generates a new version key for this revoked attribute and generates an update key. With the update key, all the users, except the revoked user, who hold the revoked attributes can update its secret key