A Mechanism Design Approach to Resource Procurement in Cloud Computing

  1. ABSTRACT

We present a cloud resource procurement approach which not only automates the selection of an appropriate cloud vendor but also implements dynamic pricing. Three possible mechanisms are suggested for cloud resource procurement: cloud-dominant strategy incentive compatible (C-DSIC), cloud-Bayesian incentive compatible (C-BIC), and cloud optimal (C-OPT). C-DSIC is dominant strategy incentive compatible, based on the VCG mechanism, and is a low-bid Vickrey auction. C-BIC is Bayesian incentive compatible, which achieves budget balance. C-BIC does not satisfy individual rationality. In C-DSIC and C-BIC, the cloud vendor who charges the lowest cost per unit Qos is declared the winner. In C-OPT, the cloud vendor with the least virtual cost is declared the Winner. C-OPT overcome the limitations of both C-DSIC and C-BIC. C-OPT is not only Bayesian incentive compatible, but also individually rational. Our experiments indicate that the resource procurement cost decreases with increase in number of cloud vendors irrespective of the mechanisms. We also propose a procurement module for a cloud broker which can implement C-DSIC, C-BIC, or C-OPT to perform resource procurement in a cloud computing context. A cloud broker with such a procurement module enables users to automate the choice of a cloud vendor among many with diverse offerings, and is also an essential first step toward implementing dynamic pricing in the cloud

  1. INTRODUCTION

CLOUD computing is an increasingly popular paradigm of offering services over the Internet. It is also an active area of research, and the popularity of this paradigm is growing rapidly. Many companies like Amazon, IBM, Google, salesforce.com, Unisys, and so on, now offer cloud services. The main advantage of cloud computing is the ability to provision IT resources on demand (thus avoiding the problems of over-provisioning and under-provisioning which are commonly seen with organizations that have widely variable requirements due to growth/shrinkage, seasonal peaks, and valleys, etc.). The resources offered may include storage, CPU processing power, IT services, and so on. These resources are often geographically distant from users.

  1. LITRATURE SURVEY

A SEVICE-ORIENTED BROKER FOR BULK DATA TRANSFER IN CLOUD COMPUTING

PUBLICATION: Y. Yang, Y. Zhou, L. Liang, D. He, and Z. Sun, Proc. Ninth Int’l Conf. Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC), pp. 264-269, Nov. 2010

Cloud computing emerges as new computing paradigms in which virtualized resources provide reliable and guarantee service for users demand. Actually, cloud is a service-oriented platform because all kind of virtual resources are treated as service to users. Nowadays, most of data–intensive applications have been developed on cloud system. These applications reaches geographically separated storage or data resource with even cross-continental-networks. Then, the performance degradation of networks will surely affect the cloud application performance and user request. In order to ensure guarantee service of bulk data transfer in cloud computing, the reservation and combined resources utilization become critical issues which include data and network resources. This issue involves reserve and assign combined resources to meet user’s QoS requirement. According to this problem, a cloud infrastructure service framework (CISF) is proposed to achieve guarantee service for data-intensive applications in this paper. And a service-oriented resource broker (SRB) based on this framework which is proposed to discovery, select, reserve and assign best combined resources. Finally, under user’s QoS constraint dynamic resource selection algorithm has been implemented for optimization of combined resources allocation.

CLOUD BROKER: BRINGING INTELLIGENCE INTO THE CLOUD

PUBLICATION: S. Grivas, T.U. Kumar, and H. Wache, Proc. IEEE Third Int’l Conf. Cloud Computing (CLOUD), pp. 544-545, July 2010.

Handling changes of business processes, and making sure systems are up and running after a change in the business process with minimum downtime is something which has been of interest to researchers for long and there have been several approaches proposed for it. With Cloud computing becoming increasingly popular businesses require a strong system for cloud based implementations which can handle change management of processes. In this paper we propose a change management approach for cloud backed business process models.

A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MOVING WORKLOADS TO PUBLIC CLOUDS

PUBLICATION: M.F. Mithani, M. Salsburg, and S. Rao, GSTF Int’l J. Computing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 150-157, Aug. 2010,  doi:10.5176_2010-2283_1.1.25.

As military, academic, and commercial computing 7 systems evolve from autonomous entities that deliver computing 8 products into network centric enterprise systems that deliver com- 9 puting as a service, opportunities emerge to consolidate computing 10 resources, software, and information through cloud computing. 11 Along with these opportunities come challenges, particularly to 12 service providers and operations centers that struggle to monitor 13 and manage quality of service (QoS) for these services in order to 14 meet customer service commitments. Traditional approaches fall 15 short in addressing these challenges because they examine QoS 16 from a limited perspective rather than from a system-of-systems 17 (SoS) perspective applicable to a net-centric enterprise system in 18 which any user from any location can share computing resources 19 at any time. This paper presents a SoS approach to enable QoS

20 monitoring, management, and response for enterprise systems 21 that deliver computing as a service through a cloud computing 22 environment. A concrete example is provided for application of 23 this new SoS approach to a real-world scenario (viz., distributed 24 denial of service). Simulated results confirm the efficacy of the 25 approach.

RESERVOIR—- WHEN ONE CLOUD IS NOT ENOUGH

PUBLICATION: B. Rochwerger, J. Tordsson, C. Ragusa, D. Breitgand, S. Clayman, A. Epstein, D. Hadas, E.  Levy, I. Loy, A. Maraschini, P. Massonet, H. Mun˜ oz, K. Nagin, G. Toffetti, and M. Villari, Computer, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 44- 51, Mar. 2011.

As cloud computing becomes more predominant, the problem of scalability has become critical for cloud computing providers. The cloud paradigm is attractive because it offers a dramatic reduction in capital and operation expenses for consumers. But as the demand for cloud services increases, the ensuing increases in cost and complexity for the cloud provider may become unbearable. We briefly discuss the technologies we developed under the RESERVOIR European research project to help cloud providers deal with complexity and scalability issues. We also introduce the notion of a federated cloud that would consist of several cloud providers joined by mutual collaboration agreements. A federated cloud can deal with scalability problems in a costeffective manner. Providers in the federation who have excess capacity can share their infrastructure with members in need of additional resources.

CHAPTER 2

2.0 SYSTEM ANALYSIS

2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM

Resource procurement of cloud resources is an interesting and yet unexplored area in cloud computing. Cloud vendors follow a fixed pricing strategy (“pay as you go”)for pricing their resources and do not provide any incentive to their users to adjust consumption patterns according to availability or other factors.

Most cloud vendors use the pay-as-you-go model. Many are loath to negotiate contracts as they lack understanding of a sound theoretical basis for dynamic pricing. The default agreement offered by a vendor often contractually benefits the vendor but not the user, resulting in a mismatch with user requirements. Hence, this kind of pricing favors the cloud vendor. Also, there is no clear commitment on SLAs.

2.1.1 DISADVANTAGES:

2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM

Each cloud user has resource requirements. The users perform reverse auctions for procuring resources (which are also called procurement auctions). Cloud vendors offer resources, but with varying costs and quality metrics. The goal of the cloud user is to minimize the total cost of procuring resources without compromising quality of service. To minimize the procurement cost, it is necessary for the cloud user to know the real costs of cloud vendors. A user announces its specifications for desired resources and quality of service to all cloud vendors, with the broker acting as a middleman. The cloud vendors decide whether to participate in the auction based on the user information and submit their bids to the broker.

2.2.1 ADVANTAGES:

Costs and tasks are uniformly distributed. The average procurement cost is calculated in every mechanism and compared.

2.3 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

2.3.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT

v    Processor                                 –    Pentium –IV

  • Speed                                      –    1.1 GHz
    • RAM                                       –    256 MB (min)
    • Hard Disk                               –   20 GB
    • Floppy Drive                           –    1.44 MB
    • Key Board                              –    Standard Windows Keyboard
    • Mouse                                     –    Two or Three Button Mouse
    • Monitor                                   –    SVGA

 

2.3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

  • Operating System                   :           Windows XP
  • Front End                                :           Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2008
  • Back End                                :           MS-SQL Server 2005
  • Document                               :           MS-Office 2007

CHAPTER 3

3.0 SYSTEM DESIGN:

Data Flow Diagram / Use Case Diagram / Flow Diagram:

  • The DFD is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system
  • The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important modeling tools. It is used to model the system components. These components are the system process, the data used by the process, an external entity that interacts with the system and the information flows in the system.
  • DFD shows how the information moves through the system and how it is modified by a series of transformations. It is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and the transformations that are applied as data moves from input to output.
  • DFD is also known as bubble chart. A DFD may be used to represent a system at any level of abstraction. DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail.

NOTATION:

SOURCE OR DESTINATION OF DATA:

External sources or destinations, which may be people or organizations or other entities

 

DATA SOURCE:

Here the data referenced by a process is stored and retrieved.

 

PROCESS:

People, procedures or devices that produce data. The physical component is not identified.

DATA FLOW:

Data moves in a specific direction from an origin to a destination. The data flow is a “packet” of data.

MODELING RULES:

There are several common modeling rules when creating DFDs:

  1. All processes must have at least one data flow in and one data flow out.
  2. All processes should modify the incoming data, producing new forms of outgoing data.
  3. Each data store must be involved with at least one data flow.
  4. Each external entity must be involved with at least one data flow.
  5. A data flow must be attached to at least one process.


3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.2 DATAFLOW DIAGRAM

UML DIAGRAMS:

3.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM:

3.3 CLASS DIAGRAM:

3.4 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM:

3.5 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM:

CHAPTER 4

4.0 IMPLEMENTATION:

4.1 ALGORITHM

4.2 MODULES:

USER

CLOUD BROKER

CLOUD PROVIDER

4.3 MODULE DESCRIPTION:

1. USER

It contains following steps

User Registration

Login

File Upload

View accepted Files

Request for space

Download

(a)User Registration

In this module new user register the information in order to use the cloud for space.

(b)Login

In this module user can login by using his/her username and password.

(c)File Upload

In this module each user can upload the file and requirements to the cloud broker for provider allocation.

(d)View Accepted Files

In this module each user can view their own file is accepted or not.

(e)Request for Space

In this module each user sent the request to the cloud broker for upload their file in cloud

(f)Download

In this module user can download their files for future use.

2. CLOUD BROKER:

Login

Accept Files

View provider space

Provider allocation

(a)Login

By this module cloud broker can enter into process by using his name and password.

(b)Accept Files

In this module the broker can accept the user by accepting and rejecting their file depends on their cost.

(c)View Provider Space

In this module broker can view available space in each cloud server

(d)Provider Allocation

This component validates the user resource requirements. The validated requirements are broadcasted to all the cloud vendors. The cloud vendors respond with the assumed QoS parameters and cost. This information is validated and sent to the auction manager.

3. CLOUD PROVIDER MODULE:

In this module each user can upload the files depending on their cost to upload their files in cloud server (i.e.) cloud provider.

The cloud provider can view the files are upload to server.

CHAPTER 5

5.0 SYSTEM STUDY:

5.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY:

The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company.  For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential.

Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are      

  • ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY
  • TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
  • SOCIAL FEASIBILITY

5.1.1 ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY:                  

This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased.

5.1.2 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:

 This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.  

5.1.3 SOCIAL FEASIBILITY:  

The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of the system.

5.2 SYSTEM TESTING:

Testing is a process of checking whether the developed system is working according to the original objectives and requirements. It is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. Testing is vital to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, the global will be successfully achieved. In adequate testing if not testing leads to errors that may not appear even many months. This creates two problems, the time lag between the cause and the appearance of the problem and the effect of the system errors on the files and records within the system. A small system error can conceivably explode into a much larger Problem. Effective testing early in the purpose translates directly into long term cost savings from a reduced number of errors. Another reason for system testing is its utility, as a user-oriented vehicle before implementation. The best programs are worthless if it produces the correct outputs.

5.2.1 UNIT TESTING:

A program represents the logical elements of a system. For a program to run satisfactorily, it must compile and test data correctly and tie in properly with other programs. Achieving an error free program is the responsibility of the programmer. Program  testing  checks  for  two  types  of  errors:  syntax  and  logical. Syntax error is a program statement that violates one or more rules of the language in which it is written. An improperly defined field dimension or omitted keywords are common syntax errors. These errors are shown through error message generated by the computer. For Logic errors the programmer must examine the output carefully.

UNIT TESTING:

Description Expected result
Test for application window properties. All the properties of the windows are to be properly aligned and displayed.
Test for mouse operations. All the mouse operations like click, drag, etc. must perform the necessary operations without any exceptions.

5.1.3 FUNCTIONAL TESTING:

Functional testing of an application is used to prove the application delivers correct results, using enough inputs to give an adequate level of confidence that will work correctly for all sets of inputs. The functional testing will need to prove that the application works for each client type and that personalization function work correctly.When a program is tested, the actual output is compared with the expected output. When there is a discrepancy the sequence of instructions must be traced to determine the problem.  The process is facilitated by breaking the program into self-contained portions, each of which can be checked at certain key points. The idea is to compare program values against desk-calculated values to isolate the problems.

FUNCTIONAL TESTING:

Description Expected result
Test for all modules. All peers should communicate in the group.
Test for various peer in a distributed network framework as it display all users available in the group. The result after execution should give the accurate result.

5.1. 4 NON-FUNCTIONAL TESTING:

 The Non Functional software testing encompasses a rich spectrum of testing strategies, describing the expected results for every test case. It uses symbolic analysis techniques. This testing used to check that an application will work in the operational environment. Non-functional testing includes:

  • Load testing
  • Performance testing
  • Usability testing
  • Reliability testing
  • Security testing

5.1.5 LOAD TESTING:

An important tool for implementing system tests is a Load generator. A Load generator is essential for testing quality requirements such as performance and stress. A load can be a real load, that is, the system can be put under test to real usage by having actual telephone users connected to it. They will generate test input data for system test.

Load Testing

Description Expected result
It is necessary to ascertain that the application behaves correctly under loads when ‘Server busy’ response is received. Should designate another active node as a Server.

5.1.5 PERFORMANCE TESTING:

Performance tests are utilized in order to determine the widely defined performance of the software system such as execution time associated with various parts of the code, response time and device utilization. The intent of this testing is to identify weak points of the software system and quantify its shortcomings.

PERFORMANCE TESTING:

Description Expected result
This is required to assure that an application perforce adequately, having the capability to handle many peers, delivering its results in expected time and using an acceptable level of resource and it is an aspect of operational management.   Should handle large input values, and produce accurate result in a  expected time.  

5.1.6 RELIABILITY TESTING:

The software reliability is the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time and it is being ensured in this testing. Reliability can be expressed as the ability of the software to reveal defects under testing conditions, according to the specified requirements. It the portability that a software system will operate without failure under given conditions for a given time interval and it focuses on the behavior of the software element. It forms a part of the software quality control team.

RELIABILITY TESTING:

Description Expected result
This is to check that the server is rugged and reliable and can handle the failure of any of the components involved in provide the application. In case of failure of  the server an alternate server should take over the job.

5.1.7 SECURITY TESTING:

Security testing evaluates system characteristics that relate to the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the system data and services. Users/Clients should be encouraged to make sure their security needs are very clearly known at requirements time, so that the security issues can be addressed by the designers and testers.

SECURITY TESTING:

  Description Expected result
Checking that the user identification is authenticated. In case failure it should not be connected in the framework.
Check whether group keys in a tree are shared by all peers. The peers should know group key in the same group.

5.1.7 WHITE BOX TESTING:

White  box  testing,  sometimes called  glass-box  testing is  a test  case  design method  that  uses  the  control  structure  of the procedural  design  to  derive  test  cases. Using  white  box  testing  method,  the software  engineer  can  derive  test  cases. The White box testing focuses on the inner structure of the software structure to be tested.

5.1.8 WHITE BOX TESTING:

Description Expected result
Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. All the logical decisions must be valid.
Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. All the loops must be finite.
Exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity. All the data structures must be valid.

5.1.9 BLACK BOX TESTING:

Black box testing, also called behavioral testing, focuses on the functional requirements of the software.  That  is,  black  testing  enables  the software engineer  to  derive  sets  of  input  conditions  that  will  fully  exercise  all  functional requirements  for  a  program.  Black box testing is not alternative to white box techniques.  Rather  it  is  a  complementary  approach  that  is  likely  to  uncover  a different  class  of  errors  than  white box  methods. Black box testing attempts to find errors which focuses on inputs, outputs, and principle function of a software module. The starting point of the black box testing is either a specification or code. The contents of the box are hidden and the stimulated software should produce the desired results.

5.1.10 BLACK BOX TESTING:

Description Expected result
To check for incorrect or missing functions. All the functions must be valid.
To check for interface errors. The entire interface must function normally.
To check for errors in a data structures or external data base access. The database updation and retrieval must be done.
To check for initialization and termination errors. All the functions and data structures must be initialized properly and terminated normally.

All the above system testing strategies are carried out in as the development, documentation and institutionalization of the proposed goals and related policies is essential.

CHAPTER 6

6.0 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:

6.1 FEATURES OF .NET:

Microsoft .NET is a set of Microsoft software technologies for rapidly building and integrating XML Web services, Microsoft Windows-based applications, and Web solutions. The .NET Framework is a language-neutral platform for writing programs that can easily and securely interoperate. There’s no language barrier with .NET: there are numerous languages available to the developer including Managed C++, C#, Visual Basic and Java Script.

The .NET framework provides the foundation for components to interact seamlessly, whether locally or remotely on different platforms. It standardizes common data types and communications protocols so that components created in different languages can easily interoperate.

“.NET” is also the collective name given to various software components built upon the .NET platform. These will be both products (Visual Studio.NET and Windows.NET Server, for instance) and services (like Passport, .NET My Services, and so on).

6.2 THE .NET FRAMEWORK

The .NET Framework has two main parts:

1. The Common Language Runtime (CLR).

2. A hierarchical set of class libraries.

The CLR is described as the “execution engine” of .NET. It provides the environment within which programs run. The most important features are

  • Conversion from a low-level assembler-style language, called Intermediate Language (IL), into code native to the platform being executed on.
  • Memory management, notably including garbage collection.
  • Checking and enforcing security restrictions on the running code.
  • Loading and executing programs, with version control and other such features.
  • The following features of the .NET framework are also worth description:

Managed Code

The code that targets .NET, and which contains certain extra Information – “metadata” – to describe itself. Whilst both managed and unmanaged code can run in the runtime, only managed code contains the information that allows the CLR to guarantee, for instance, safe execution and interoperability.

Managed Data

With Managed Code comes Managed Data. CLR provides memory allocation and Deal location facilities, and garbage collection. Some .NET languages use Managed Data by default, such as C#, Visual Basic.NET and JScript.NET, whereas others, namely C++, do not. Targeting CLR can, depending on the language you’re using, impose certain constraints on the features available. As with managed and unmanaged code, one can have both managed and unmanaged data in .NET applications – data that doesn’t get garbage collected but instead is looked after by unmanaged code.

Common Type System

The CLR uses something called the Common Type System (CTS) to strictly enforce type-safety. This ensures that all classes are compatible with each other, by describing types in a common way. CTS define how types work within the runtime, which enables types in one language to interoperate with types in another language, including cross-language exception handling. As well as ensuring that types are only used in appropriate ways, the runtime also ensures that code doesn’t attempt to access memory that hasn’t been allocated to it.

Common Language Specification

The CLR provides built-in support for language interoperability. To ensure that you can develop managed code that can be fully used by developers using any programming language, a set of language features and rules for using them called the Common Language Specification (CLS) has been defined. Components that follow these rules and expose only CLS features are considered CLS-compliant.

6.3 THE CLASS LIBRARY

.NET provides a single-rooted hierarchy of classes, containing over 7000 types. The root of the namespace is called System; this contains basic types like Byte, Double, Boolean, and String, as well as Object. All objects derive from System. Object. As well as objects, there are value types. Value types can be allocated on the stack, which can provide useful flexibility. There are also efficient means of converting value types to object types if and when necessary.

The set of classes is pretty comprehensive, providing collections, file, screen, and network I/O, threading, and so on, as well as XML and database connectivity.

The class library is subdivided into a number of sets (or namespaces), each providing distinct areas of functionality, with dependencies between the namespaces kept to a minimum.

6.4 LANGUAGES SUPPORTED BY .NET

The multi-language capability of the .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET enables developers to use their existing programming skills to build all types of applications and XML Web services. The .NET framework supports new versions of Microsoft’s old favorites Visual Basic and C++ (as VB.NET and Managed C++), but there are also a number of new additions to the family.

Visual Basic .NET has been updated to include many new and improved language features that make it a powerful object-oriented programming language. These features include inheritance, interfaces, and overloading, among others. Visual Basic also now supports structured exception handling, custom attributes and also supports multi-threading.

Visual Basic .NET is also CLS compliant, which means that any CLS-compliant language can use the classes, objects, and components you create in Visual Basic .NET.

Managed Extensions for C++ and attributed programming are just some of the enhancements made to the C++ language. Managed Extensions simplify the task of migrating existing C++ applications to the new .NET Framework.

C# is Microsoft’s new language. It’s a C-style language that is essentially “C++ for Rapid Application Development”. Unlike other languages, its specification is just the grammar of the language. It has no standard library of its own, and instead has been designed with the intention of using the .NET libraries as its own.  

Microsoft Visual J# .NET provides the easiest transition for Java-language developers into the world of XML Web Services and dramatically improves the interoperability of Java-language programs with existing software written in a variety of other programming languages.

Active State has created Visual Perl and Visual Python, which enable .NET-aware applications to be built in either Perl or Python. Both products can be integrated into the Visual Studio .NET environment. Visual Perl includes support for Active State’s Perl Dev Kit.

Other languages for which .NET compilers are available include

  • FORTRAN
  • COBOL
  • Eiffel          
            ASP.NET  XML WEB SERVICES    Windows Forms
                         Base Class Libraries
                   Common Language Runtime
                           Operating System

Fig1 .Net Framework

C#.NET is also compliant with CLS (Common Language Specification) and supports structured exception handling. CLS is set of rules and constructs that are supported by the CLR (Common Language Runtime). CLR is the runtime environment provided by the .NET Framework; it manages the execution of the code and also makes the development process easier by providing services.

C#.NET is a CLS-compliant language. Any objects, classes, or components that created in C#.NET can be used in any other CLS-compliant language. In addition, we can use objects, classes, and components created in other CLS-compliant languages in C#.NET .The use of CLS ensures complete interoperability among applications, regardless of the languages used to create the application.

CONSTRUCTORS AND DESTRUCTORS:

Constructors are used to initialize objects, whereas destructors are used to destroy them. In other words, destructors are used to release the resources allocated to the object. In C#.NET the sub finalize procedure is available. The sub finalize procedure is used to complete the tasks that must be performed when an object is destroyed. The sub finalize procedure is called automatically when an object is destroyed. In addition, the sub finalize procedure can be called only from the class it belongs to or from derived classes.

GARBAGE COLLECTION

Garbage Collection is another new feature in C#.NET. The .NET Framework monitors allocated resources, such as objects and variables. In addition, the .NET Framework automatically releases memory for reuse by destroying objects that are no longer in use. 

In C#.NET, the garbage collector checks for the objects that are not currently in use by applications. When the garbage collector comes across an object that is marked for garbage collection, it releases the memory occupied by the object.

 OVERLOADING

 Overloading is another feature in C#. Overloading enables us to define multiple procedures with the same name, where each procedure has a different set of arguments. Besides using overloading for procedures, we can use it for constructors and properties in a class.

MULTITHREADING:

 C#.NET also supports multithreading. An application that supports multithreading can handle multiple tasks simultaneously, we can use multithreading to decrease the time taken by an application to respond to user interaction.

STRUCTURED EXCEPTION HANDLING

 C#.NET supports structured handling, which enables us to detect and remove errors at runtime. In C#.NET, we need to use Try…Catch…Finally statements to create exception handlers. Using Try…Catch…Finally statements, we can create robust and effective exception handlers to improve the performance of our application.

6.5 THE .NET FRAMEWORK

 The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet.

OBJECTIVES OF .NET FRAMEWORK

 1. To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object codes is stored and executed locally on Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.

2. To provide a code-execution environment to minimizes software deployment and guarantees safe execution of code.

3. Eliminates the performance problems.         

There are different types of application, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications. 

6.6 FEATURES OF SQL-SERVER

The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Meta Data Services. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. The term repository is used only in reference to the repository engine within Meta Data Services

SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects,

They are,

1. TABLE

2. QUERY

3. FORM

4. REPORT

5. MACRO

TABLE:

A database is a collection of data about a specific topic.

VIEWS OF TABLE:

We can work with a table in two types,

1. Design View

2. Datasheet View

Design View

To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the table design view. We can specify what kind of data will be hold.

Datasheet View

To add, edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet view mode.

QUERY:

A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the dynaset. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it, such as deleting or updating.

CHAPTER 7

APPENDIX

7.1 SAMPLE SOURCE CODE

7.2 SAMPLE OUTPUT

CHAPTER 8

8.1 CONCLUSION

Currently, the cloud user pays a fixed price for resources or services. This type of pricing is called fixed pricing. Fixed pricing is very popular with telecom providers. On the flip side, there is no provision for incentives for users in the fixed strategy. Resource procurement is not only an important problem in cloud computing but is also an unexplored area. Currently, resource procurement is done manually and  there is a pressing need to automate it. To automate procurement, we have presented three mechanisms: C-DSIC, C-BIC, and C-OPT. C-DSIC is a lowbid Vickrey auction. It is allocative efficient and individual rational but not budget balanced. If the mechanism is not budget balanced, then an external agency has to provide money to perform procurement. C-BIC is a weaker strategy compared to C-DSIC and it is Bayesian incentive compatible. In C-BIC, vendorss reveal the truth only if other vendors reveal the truth, unlike C-DISC where vendors reveal the truth irrespective of others’ choices. C-BIC achieves budget balance and allocative efficiency but not individual rationality. C-OPT achieves both Bayesian incentive compatibility and individual rationality, which the other two mechanisms cannot achieve. This mechanism is immune to both overbidding and underbidding. If a cloud vendor overbids, then the incentive is reduced. If it underbids, then it may not be a winner. C-OPT is more general compared to both C-DSIC and C-BIC—even if cloud vendors use different

distributions for cost and QoS, we can safely use C-OPT. Hence, C-OPT is the preferred mechanism in more cases in the real world. The experiments reveal an interesting pattern. The resource procurement cost reduces as the number of cloud vendors increase, irrespective of the mechanism implemented. The cost in C-BIC reduces more significantly, compared to the other two mechanisms.